Abstract: This paper is an English linguistics paper. Combined with the characteristics of the biased corpus, the textbook and the syllabus, it is found that learners are easy to analogize their mother tongue thinking to learning, resulting in the wrong order and wrong generation of time frequency adverbs; The complexity of the target language rules is the main cause of errors. Learners' unclear frequency of adverbs and semantic grammar aggravate the generation of errors such as misgeneration; In addition, learners' language avoidance and improper teaching strategies also contribute to the formation of errors such as omission.
This paper is an English linguistics paper. This paper focuses on how to improve the acquisition of Frequency Adverbs by foreign students from the perspective of teaching methods, teaching strategies and teachers themselves. From the perspective of teaching practice, only the teaching methods that are suitable for students' level and the teaching strategies that are suitable for language characteristics can effectively guide students to learn time frequency adverbs reasonably.
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 reason for topic selection
Adverbs have always been an important part of teaching Chinese as a foreign language. As an important part of modern Chinese, time frequency adverbs are also the key and difficult points in the teaching process. Because the semantic and grammatical features of time frequency adverbs are similar, it is difficult for teachers and students to learn.
Previous studies on the adverbs of time and frequency mostly focused on several common words, most of which were ontology and error studies, such as the words "often" and "often". This kind of error research does not start from the perspective of learners, and there are few error studies related to intermediate level foreign students . In my Chinese class, the majority of foreign students are at the intermediate level. Learning at the intermediate level is a very important period in the process of foreign students' Chinese learning, but few people pay attention to the students' learning of frequency adverbs at this stage. And the vast majority of intermediate level students come from countries where English is their mother tongue or English is the official language . It is more targeted to study the errors of frequency adverbs in this group.
Secondly, the development of teaching materials also has an important impact on foreign students' learning time frequency adverbs. The author finds that the distribution of frequency adverbs in some textbooks is different from the general syllabus for international Chinese teaching (hereinafter referred to as the syllabus). A simple comparison between the syllabus and the textbooks shows that the arrangement of frequency adverbs in some textbooks does not meet the requirements of the syllabus. It can be seen that combing the teaching materials and deeply understanding the compilation of frequency adverbs in the teaching materials can make teachers' teaching more scientific, so as to make up for the shortcomings of the teaching materials and improve the teaching effect of adverbs through teaching.
Therefore, this paper focuses on the foreign students whose mother tongue is English at the intermediate stage. Combined with the teaching materials and the syllabus, this paper investigates the acquisition of second language learners through teaching practice. On the one hand, it helps to enrich the ontology research results; On the other hand, it is helpful for Chinese teachers to have a more comprehensive understanding of the types and causes of errors in the acquisition of time frequency adverbs by second language learners. Combined with the learners' mother tongue background and the actual teaching situation, it is more targeted to provide some suggestions for the teaching of time adverbs in Chinese as a foreign language.
1.2 research status of time frequency adverbs in teaching Chinese as a foreign language
In recent years, the research on time and frequency adverbs mainly focuses on the ontology and error analysis of some common words, and rarely discusses the types and causes of errors in mastering time and Frequency Adverbs by foreign students at the intermediate level from the level of students.
From the perspective of time frequency adverbs themselves, the classification of adverbs has always been one of the controversial topics in academic circles. Mr. lvshuxiang (1984) once pointed out in the problems of Chinese grammar analysis that "adverbs need to be classified internally, but they are not easy to be separated neatly, because adverbs themselves are a hodgepodge." Therefore, the division of time frequency adverbs is also controversial.
Due to different semantic and grammatical features, scholars have different definitions of frequency adverbs. At present, there are three main ways to define frequency adverbs.
One is to regard it as the sub category of time adverbs. For example, zhaoyuanren (1979), zhudexi (1982), modern Chinese (2000) compiled by Peking University, Zhang Yisheng (2004) and new modern Chinese (2002) edited by Zhang Bin. Lu Jianming and Ma Zhen (1999) believed that frequency adverbs are a kind of time adverbs, and divided time adverbs into fixed time adverbs and irregular time adverbs. Huyushu (1987) divided adverbs into six categories: degree, expression, time, frequency and so on.
Second, frequency adverbs are regarded as a small category of momentum adverbs, which are also called Frequency Adverbs by many scholars. For example, shijinsheng and huxiaoping (2004) put forward the concept of "momentum Adverbs" in the category and selectivity of momentum adverbs.
Third, this kind of words are classified into a single category, called frequency adverbs. Frequency adverbs and time adverbs are juxtaposed in position, and they are the sub category of adverbs. The first time to separate frequency adverbs is the practical modern Chinese grammar edited by liuyuehua (1983). Zhouxiaobing (1999) noticed many problems about frequency adverbs in teaching Chinese as a foreign language in the classification and use rules of frequency adverbs. Based on the characteristics of frequency adverbs different from general time adverbs and the comparison between Chinese and foreign languages, he advocated that frequency adverbs should be classified separately for research. Based on word meaning and usage, he divided the scope of frequency adverbs and classified them internally. Zouhaiqing (2006) described the definition of frequency adverbs and distinguished the semantic features of adverbs that express repetition and adverbs of time.
Chapter 2 the distribution characteristics of time frequency adverbs and the characteristics of biased corpus
2.1 HSK outline time frequency adverb grade characteristics
HSK is a standardized test of international Chinese ability, which focuses on the ability of non first language learners to use Chinese for communication, including listening, speaking, reading and writing. HSK examination outline is an important reference for learners to prepare for the exam, compile teaching materials and teachers' teaching. According to the requirements of the syllabus, students should master 150 first level words, 300 second level words, 600 third level words, 1200 fourth level words, 2500 fifth level words and 5000 sixth level words. This section will focus on the collection of time and frequency adverbs in the outline, and list the time and frequency adverbs contained in each grade. There are 14 frequency adverbs in common vocabulary of levels 1-6 of the syllabus, which are distributed as follows.
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According to the above table, adverbs of time and frequency are distributed in levels 3 to 6 of the outline, of which level 5 and level 6 have the largest number, a total of 9, accounting for more than half of all adverbs of time and frequency. Among them, "often" occurs at Level 3 and level 5 at the same time, and duplicate statistics are not made here. In addition, for example, the word "Lao" itself has multiple meanings, but the part of speech in Level 3 vocabulary is not marked in the outline, which is not conducive to learners' mastery of the word.
2.2 time frequency adverbs and their distribution in textbooks
Textbook is an important tool for students to learn Chinese. Reasonable textbook arrangement can make learners get twice the result with half the effort. After investigation, it is found that there are a variety of textbooks for teaching Chinese as a foreign language used by domestic universities and some Confucius Institutes abroad. But at present, there are three textbooks that can be widely recognized and applied in a wide range. One is the series of textbooks on developing Chinese published by Beijing Language and Culture University Press; Second, HSK standard course series jointly developed by CTI and Beijing Language and Culture University Press; The third is the Chinese Course published by Beijing Language and Culture University Press and compiled by yangjizhou. This section will examine the distribution of frequency adverbs in the three textbooks. Similarly, in the process of reviewing textbooks, focus on the textbooks recommended for use in the intermediate stage. The corresponding "developing Chinese" is intermediate comprehensive 1 and 2, Volumes 3 and 4 of HSK standard course, and volumes 3 and 4 of Chinese course.
2.2.1 distribution of frequency adverbs in developing Chinese
The full set of textbooks for developing Chinese is divided into three levels and five series, namely, vertically divided into three levels of junior high school and senior high school; It is horizontally divided into five series: comprehensive, oral, listening, reading and writing. The comprehensive series is the main teaching material, and the oral, listening, reading and writing series are the supporting teaching materials. This means that the comprehensive course bears a variety of teaching tasks and objectives, including the teaching of language elements, language skills and language communication skills. Due to its own characteristics and advantages, the comprehensive course has an irreplaceable position, and the skill course can not replace its core position. Therefore, this paper focuses on the statistics of frequency adverbs in the intermediate comprehensive textbook of developing Chinese. According to statistics, there are 13 frequency adverbs in the comprehensive textbook of developing Chinese. Among them, there are 6 frequency adverbs in the primary textbooks, 2 in the advanced textbooks, and 5 in the intermediate textbooks that this paper focuses on.
Chapter 3 error types of time frequency adverbs nineteen
3.1 wrong order of time frequency adverbs nineteen
3.1.1 misorder of the low-frequency adverb "occasionally" nineteen
3.1.2 wrong order of the intermediate frequency adverbs "often" and "often" twenty
Chapter 4 causes of errors of time frequency adverbs thirty-one
4.1 negative transfer of frequency adverbs caused by grammatical analogy of mother tongue thirty-one
4.1.1 English grammatical analogy leads to incorrect generation and order of frequency adverbs thirty-one
4.1.2 incorrect addition and substitution of frequency adverbs caused by missing English Annotations thirty-two
Chapter 5 relevant teaching suggestions for time frequency adverbs forty-one
5.1 teaching methods suitable for the level forty-one
5.1.1 interpretation method of example sentences combined with life experience forty-one
5.1.2 classification method in line with the characteristics of intermediate students forty-three
Chapter 5 relevant teaching suggestions of time frequency adverbs
5.1 teaching methods suitable for the level
Whether teachers can use appropriate teaching methods is the most important. What kind of teaching methods teachers use in the classroom is based on a variety of factors, including students, teachers and teaching content. The main body of students in this paper is the international students who have reached the intermediate level. Facing the teaching objects at this level, teachers should adopt corresponding teaching means to meet the students' personality and learning characteristics at this stage. Secondly, the teaching content also directly affects teachers' teaching methods. The vocabulary and grammar mastered in the intermediate stage have been greatly improved compared with those in the primary stage, and the key points that students should master have also changed. Therefore, according to the characteristics of students and teaching content, teachers adopt appropriate methods and strategies to help students at this level better master the key points of knowledge at this stage.
5.1.1 interpretation of example sentences combined with life experience
The vocabulary of intermediate stage is obviously more difficult than that of primary stage. The increase of quantity is mainly reflected in the increase of quantity and the meaning of words; The difficulty is mainly reflected in the understanding of function words and more abstract words. Therefore, when teaching function words such as frequency adverbs, we can start with examples, understand the function of words, and then practice repeatedly with examples. Example sentence interpretation is to explain and experience the function of words in sentences. It can also be understood as situational explanation. Chinese teaching is inseparable from situational teaching. Interpretation through example sentences is to create a situation for students to understand the meaning of words, so that students can accurately understand and be impressed. For example, when explaining the word "often", the teacher can first give an example sentence, such as: "we often dictate new words." This example sentence must conform to the situation of the students taught by the teacher. Taking the author as an example, the class taught by the author will dictate new words after each lesson, so it is in line with the situation to use this sentence as an example. Students can perceive the meaning of "often" as an adverb of time and frequency.
Chapter 6 Conclusion
Time and frequency adverbs are frequently used, which cannot correspond to the adverbs of frequency in English one by one. Students will make various errors in the process of learning, so it is an important and difficult point in teaching Chinese as a foreign language.
The outline makes detailed grade requirements for the time and frequency adverbs that foreign students should master. Based on the actual situation of the practice class (most students come from native English speaking countries and have HSK level 3-4), this study determines the five intermediate time and frequency adverbs to be studied: occasionally, often, often, always and old (yes). Based on the corpus of errors in the daily use of time frequency adverbs by students in classes C and D of Zhejiang University of science and technology, combined with the corpus of errors in HSK dynamic composition corpus, it is found that the errors of five time frequency adverbs can be divided into low, medium and high-frequency types according to the frequency. Such as the wrong order of the low-frequency adverb "occasionally", the wrong generation of the medium-frequency adverb "often" and "often", the wrong addition and omission of the high-frequency adverb "always" and "Lao (SHI)". It can be seen that students' use of time frequency adverbs is affected by similar semantics.
Combined with the characteristics of biased corpus, teaching materials and the syllabus, it is found that learners are easy to analogize their mother tongue thinking to learning, resulting in the wrong order and wrong generation of time frequency adverbs; The complexity of the target language rules is the main cause of errors. Learners' unclear frequency of adverbs and semantic grammar aggravate the generation of errors such as misgeneration; In addition, learners' language avoidance and improper teaching strategies also contribute to the formation of errors such as omission.
Based on the above error analysis, this paper focuses on how to improve the acquisition of Frequency Adverbs by foreign students from the perspective of teaching methods, teaching strategies and teachers themselves. From the perspective of teaching practice, only the teaching methods that are suitable for students' level and the teaching strategies that are suitable for language characteristics can effectively guide students to learn time frequency adverbs reasonably. For example, we can reasonably use the example sentence interpretation method, classification method, comparison method and the comparative teaching of the same frequency adverbs and similar syntactic adverbs to improve the teaching classroom. At the same time, teachers make up for the defects of teaching materials by adjusting classroom teaching arrangements. For example, adjust the teaching order of time frequency adverbs, reasonably add notes and practice after class. In teaching, we can make up for the lack of teaching materials and adopt flexible teaching methods to actively guide students to learn time and frequency adverbs scientifically. Only by making up for the lack of teaching materials and flexible teaching can students be actively guided to learn time and frequency adverbs scientifically. These teaching strategies are also applicable to other time frequency adverbs of the same level except for the five words that this paper focuses on.